React脚手架create-react-app使用

一、安装

npm install -g create-react-app

二、创建react应用

create-react-app 是全局命令来创建 react 项目

$ create-react-app react-cli-demo
Creating a new React app in G:\GitHub\React-demo\react-cli-demo.

Installing packages. This might take a couple of minutes.
Installing react, react-dom, and react-scripts...

1. 主要依赖 react,react-dom,react-scripts

2. 生成目录结构

create-react-app生成项目目录结构

3. package.json


没有配置文件(webpack.config.js)

三、npm 命令

1、npm start

"start": "react-scripts start"
不是熟悉的"node scripts/start.js"

2、react-scripts 是什么?

react-scriptscreate-react-app生成项目所有的依赖。
通常情况下,我们创建spa应用时是使用npm安装项目依赖,在通过配置webpack.config.js进行配置,搭建好环境后在src编写源代码。而create-react-app是自动构建,在package.json中只有react-scripts作为依赖,而在reacr-scripts中已经配置好了项目所有需要的。
有一下支持:

React, JSX, ES6, and Flow syntax support.
Language extras beyond ES6 like the object spread operator.
Import CSS and image files directly from JavaScript.
Autoprefixed CSS, so you don’t need -webkit or other prefixes.
A build script to bundle JS, CSS, and images for production, with sourcemaps.
A dev server that lints for common errors.

react,es6,babel,webpack编辑到打包,react-scripts都做了。

3、react-scripts源码

打开mode-modules\react-scripts\bin \react-scripts.js

'use strict';

const spawn = require('react-dev-utils/crossSpawn');
const args = process.argv.slice(2);

const scriptIndex = args.findIndex(
  x => x === 'build' || x === 'eject' || x === 'start' || x === 'test'
);
const script = scriptIndex === -1 ? args[0] : args[scriptIndex];
const nodeArgs = scriptIndex > 0 ? args.slice(0, scriptIndex) : [];

switch (script) {
  case 'build':
  case 'eject':
  case 'start':
  case 'test': {
    const result = spawn.sync(
      'node',
      nodeArgs
        .concat(require.resolve('../scripts/' + script)) //根据npm命令引用不同文件
        .concat(args.slice(scriptIndex + 1)),
      { stdio: 'inherit' }
    );
    if (result.signal) {
      if (result.signal === 'SIGKILL') {
        console.log(
          'The build failed because the process exited too early. ' +
            'This probably means the system ran out of memory or someone called ' +
            '`kill -9` on the process.'
        );
      } else if (result.signal === 'SIGTERM') {
        console.log(
          'The build failed because the process exited too early. ' +
            'Someone might have called `kill` or `killall`, or the system could ' +
            'be shutting down.'
        );
      }
      process.exit(1);
    }
    process.exit(result.status);
    break;
  }
  default:
    console.log('Unknown script "' + script + '".');
    console.log('Perhaps you need to update react-scripts?');
    console.log(
      'See: https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/blob/master/packages/react-scripts/template/README.md#updating-to-new-releases'
    );
    break;
}

scripts文件

// start.js
'use strict';

// Do this as the first thing so that any code reading it knows the right env.
process.env.BABEL_ENV = 'development';
process.env.NODE_ENV = 'development';

// Makes the script crash on unhandled rejections instead of silently
// ignoring them. In the future, promise rejections that are not handled will
// terminate the Node.js process with a non-zero exit code.
process.on('unhandledRejection', err => {
  throw err;
});

// Ensure environment variables are read.
require('../config/env');

const fs = require('fs');
const chalk = require('chalk');
const webpack = require('webpack'); //引入webpack
const WebpackDevServer = require('webpack-dev-server'); // 引入webpack-dev-server
const clearConsole = require('react-dev-utils/clearConsole');
const checkRequiredFiles = require('react-dev-utils/checkRequiredFiles');
const {
  choosePort,
  createCompiler,
  prepareProxy,
  prepareUrls,
} = require('react-dev-utils/WebpackDevServerUtils');
const openBrowser = require('react-dev-utils/openBrowser');
const paths = require('../config/paths'); //文件路径
const config = require('../config/webpack.config.dev');
const createDevServerConfig = require('../config/webpackDevServer.config');

const useYarn = fs.existsSync(paths.yarnLockFile);
const isInteractive = process.stdout.isTTY;

// Warn and crash if required files are missing
if (!checkRequiredFiles([paths.appHtml, paths.appIndexJs])) {
  process.exit(1);
}

// Tools like Cloud9 rely on this.
const DEFAULT_PORT = parseInt(process.env.PORT, 10) || 3000; // 端口3000,可以修改在执行npm run start
const HOST = process.env.HOST || '0.0.0.0';

if (process.env.HOST) {
  console.log(
    chalk.cyan(
      `Attempting to bind to HOST environment variable: ${chalk.yellow(
        chalk.bold(process.env.HOST)
      )}`
    )
  );
  console.log(
    `If this was unintentional, check that you haven't mistakenly set it in your shell.`
  );
  console.log(`Learn more here: ${chalk.yellow('http://bit.ly/2mwWSwH')}`);
  console.log();
}

// We attempt to use the default port but if it is busy, we offer the user to
// run on a different port. `choosePort()` Promise resolves to the next free port.
choosePort(HOST, DEFAULT_PORT)
  .then(port => {
    if (port == null) {
      // We have not found a port.
      return;
    }
    const protocol = process.env.HTTPS === 'true' ? 'https' : 'http';
    const appName = require(paths.appPackageJson).name;
    const urls = prepareUrls(protocol, HOST, port);
    // Create a webpack compiler that is configured with custom messages.
    const compiler = createCompiler(webpack, config, appName, urls, useYarn);
    // Load proxy config
    const proxySetting = require(paths.appPackageJson).proxy;
    const proxyConfig = prepareProxy(proxySetting, paths.appPublic);
    // Serve webpack assets generated by the compiler over a web sever.
    const serverConfig = createDevServerConfig(
      proxyConfig,
      urls.lanUrlForConfig
    );
    const devServer = new WebpackDevServer(compiler, serverConfig);
    // Launch WebpackDevServer.
    devServer.listen(port, HOST, err => {
      if (err) {
        return console.log(err);
      }
      if (isInteractive) {
        clearConsole();
      }
      console.log(chalk.cyan('Starting the development server...\n'));
      openBrowser(urls.localUrlForBrowser);
    });

    ['SIGINT', 'SIGTERM'].forEach(function(sig) {
      process.on(sig, function() {
        devServer.close();
        process.exit();
      });
    });
  })
  .catch(err => {
    if (err && err.message) {
      console.log(err.message);
    }
    process.exit(1);
  });

// path.js 文件
// @remove-on-eject-begin
/**
 * Copyright (c) 2015-present, Facebook, Inc.
 *
 * This source code is licensed under the MIT license found in the
 * LICENSE file in the root directory of this source tree.
 */
// @remove-on-eject-end
'use strict';

const path = require('path');
const fs = require('fs');
const url = require('url');

// Make sure any symlinks in the project folder are resolved:
// https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/637
const appDirectory = fs.realpathSync(process.cwd());
const resolveApp = relativePath => path.resolve(appDirectory, relativePath);

const envPublicUrl = process.env.PUBLIC_URL;

function ensureSlash(path, needsSlash) {
  const hasSlash = path.endsWith('/');
  if (hasSlash && !needsSlash) {
    return path.substr(path, path.length - 1);
  } else if (!hasSlash && needsSlash) {
    return `${path}/`;
  } else {
    return path;
  }
}

const getPublicUrl = appPackageJson =>
  envPublicUrl || require(appPackageJson).homepage;

// We use `PUBLIC_URL` environment variable or "homepage" field to infer
// "public path" at which the app is served.
// Webpack needs to know it to put the right <script> hrefs into HTML even in
// single-page apps that may serve index.html for nested URLs like /todos/42.
// We can't use a relative path in HTML because we don't want to load something
// like /todos/42/static/js/bundle.7289d.js. We have to know the root.
function getServedPath(appPackageJson) {
  const publicUrl = getPublicUrl(appPackageJson);
  const servedUrl =
    envPublicUrl || (publicUrl ? url.parse(publicUrl).pathname : '/');
  return ensureSlash(servedUrl, true);
}

// config after eject: we're in ./config/
module.exports = { // 熟悉的各种文件的配置,也要求了在项目中index.js和index.html不能改名
  dotenv: resolveApp('.env'),
  appBuild: resolveApp('build'),
  appPublic: resolveApp('public'),
  appHtml: resolveApp('public/index.html'),
  appIndexJs: resolveApp('src/index.js'),
  appPackageJson: resolveApp('package.json'),
  appSrc: resolveApp('src'),
  yarnLockFile: resolveApp('yarn.lock'),
  testsSetup: resolveApp('src/setupTests.js'),
  appNodeModules: resolveApp('node_modules'),
  publicUrl: getPublicUrl(resolveApp('package.json')),
  servedPath: getServedPath(resolveApp('package.json')),
};

// @remove-on-eject-begin
const resolveOwn = relativePath => path.resolve(__dirname, '..', relativePath);

// config before eject: we're in ./node_modules/react-scripts/config/
module.exports = {
  dotenv: resolveApp('.env'),
  appPath: resolveApp('.'),
  appBuild: resolveApp('build'),
  appPublic: resolveApp('public'),
  appHtml: resolveApp('public/index.html'),
  appIndexJs: resolveApp('src/index.js'),
  appPackageJson: resolveApp('package.json'),
  appSrc: resolveApp('src'),
  yarnLockFile: resolveApp('yarn.lock'),
  testsSetup: resolveApp('src/setupTests.js'),
  appNodeModules: resolveApp('node_modules'),
  publicUrl: getPublicUrl(resolveApp('package.json')),
  servedPath: getServedPath(resolveApp('package.json')),
  // These properties only exist before ejecting:
  ownPath: resolveOwn('.'),
  ownNodeModules: resolveOwn('node_modules'), // This is empty on npm 3
};

const ownPackageJson = require('../package.json');
const reactScriptsPath = resolveApp(`node_modules/${ownPackageJson.name}`);
const reactScriptsLinked =
  fs.existsSync(reactScriptsPath) &&
  fs.lstatSync(reactScriptsPath).isSymbolicLink();

// config before publish: we're in ./packages/react-scripts/config/
if (
  !reactScriptsLinked &&
  __dirname.indexOf(path.join('packages', 'react-scripts', 'config')) !== -1
) {
  module.exports = {
    dotenv: resolveOwn('template/.env'),
    appPath: resolveApp('.'),
    appBuild: resolveOwn('../../build'),
    appPublic: resolveOwn('template/public'),
    appHtml: resolveOwn('template/public/index.html'),
    appIndexJs: resolveOwn('template/src/index.js'),
    appPackageJson: resolveOwn('package.json'),
    appSrc: resolveOwn('template/src'),
    yarnLockFile: resolveOwn('template/yarn.lock'),
    testsSetup: resolveOwn('template/src/setupTests.js'),
    appNodeModules: resolveOwn('node_modules'),
    publicUrl: getPublicUrl(resolveOwn('package.json')),
    servedPath: getServedPath(resolveOwn('package.json')),
    // These properties only exist before ejecting:
    ownPath: resolveOwn('.'),
    ownNodeModules: resolveOwn('node_modules'),
  };
}
// @remove-on-eject-end

// webpack-config-dev.js
'use strict';

const autoprefixer = require('autoprefixer');
const path = require('path');
const webpack = require('webpack'); //各种webpack配置
const HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin');
const CaseSensitivePathsPlugin = require('case-sensitive-paths-webpack-plugin');
const InterpolateHtmlPlugin = require('react-dev-utils/InterpolateHtmlPlugin');
const WatchMissingNodeModulesPlugin = require('react-dev-utils/WatchMissingNodeModulesPlugin');
const eslintFormatter = require('react-dev-utils/eslintFormatter');
const ModuleScopePlugin = require('react-dev-utils/ModuleScopePlugin');
const getClientEnvironment = require('./env');
const paths = require('./paths');

// Webpack uses `publicPath` to determine where the app is being served from.
// In development, we always serve from the root. This makes config easier.
const publicPath = '/';
const env = getClientEnvironment(publicUrl);
module.exports = { // 相关配置
  devtool: 'cheap-module-source-map',
  entry: [
    // We ship a few polyfills by default:
    require.resolve('./polyfills'),
    require.resolve('react-dev-utils/webpackHotDevClient'),
    // Finally, this is your app's code:
    paths.appIndexJs
  ],
  output: {
    // Add /* filename */ comments to generated require()s in the output.
    pathinfo: true,
    // This does not produce a real file. It's just the virtual path that is
    // served by WebpackDevServer in development. This is the JS bundle
    // containing code from all our entry points, and the Webpack runtime.
    filename: 'static/js/bundle.js',
    // There are also additional JS chunk files if you use code splitting.
    chunkFilename: 'static/js/[name].chunk.js',
    // This is the URL that app is served from. We use "/" in development.
    publicPath: publicPath,
    // Point sourcemap entries to original disk location (format as URL on Windows)
    devtoolModuleFilenameTemplate: info =>
      path.resolve(info.absoluteResourcePath).replace(/\\/g, '/'),
  },
  resolve: {
    // This allows you to set a fallback for where Webpack should look for modules.
    // We placed these paths second because we want `node_modules` to "win"
    // if there are any conflicts. This matches Node resolution mechanism.
    // https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/253
    modules: ['node_modules', paths.appNodeModules].concat(
      // It is guaranteed to exist because we tweak it in `env.js`
      process.env.NODE_PATH.split(path.delimiter).filter(Boolean)
    ),
    // These are the reasonable defaults supported by the Node ecosystem.
    // We also include JSX as a common component filename extension to support
    // some tools, although we do not recommend using it, see:
    // https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/290
    // `web` extension prefixes have been added for better support
    // for React Native Web.
    extensions: ['.web.js', '.mjs', '.js', '.json', '.web.jsx', '.jsx'],
    alias: {
      // @remove-on-eject-begin
      // Resolve Babel runtime relative to react-scripts.
      // It usually still works on npm 3 without this but it would be
      // unfortunate to rely on, as react-scripts could be symlinked,
      // and thus babel-runtime might not be resolvable from the source.
      'babel-runtime': path.dirname(
        require.resolve('babel-runtime/package.json')
      ),
      // @remove-on-eject-end
      // Support React Native Web
      // https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2016/08/a-glimpse-into-the-future-with-react-native-for-web/
      'react-native': 'react-native-web',
    },
    plugins: [
      // Prevents users from importing files from outside of src/ (or node_modules/).
      // This often causes confusion because we only process files within src/ with babel.
      // To fix this, we prevent you from importing files out of src/ -- if you'd like to,
      // please link the files into your node_modules/ and let module-resolution kick in.
      // Make sure your source files are compiled, as they will not be processed in any way.
      new ModuleScopePlugin(paths.appSrc, [paths.appPackageJson]),
    ],
  },
  module: {
    strictExportPresence: true,
    rules: [
      // TODO: Disable require.ensure as it's not a standard language feature.
      // We are waiting for https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/2176.
      // { parser: { requireEnsure: false } },

      // First, run the linter.
      // It's important to do this before Babel processes the JS.
      {
        test: /\.(js|jsx|mjs)$/,
        enforce: 'pre',
        use: [
          {
            options: {
              formatter: eslintFormatter,
              eslintPath: require.resolve('eslint'),
              // @remove-on-eject-begin
              baseConfig: {
                extends: [require.resolve('eslint-config-react-app')],
              },
              ignore: false,
              useEslintrc: false,
              // @remove-on-eject-end
            },
            loader: require.resolve('eslint-loader'),
          },
        ],
        include: paths.appSrc,
      },
      {
        // "oneOf" will traverse all following loaders until one will
        // match the requirements. When no loader matches it will fall
        // back to the "file" loader at the end of the loader list.
        oneOf: [
          // "url" loader works like "file" loader except that it embeds assets
          // smaller than specified limit in bytes as data URLs to avoid requests.
          // A missing `test` is equivalent to a match.
          {
            test: [/\.bmp$/, /\.gif$/, /\.jpe?g$/, /\.png$/],
            loader: require.resolve('url-loader'),
            options: {
              limit: 10000,
              name: 'static/media/[name].[hash:8].[ext]',
            },
          },
          // Process JS with Babel.
          {
            test: /\.(js|jsx|mjs)$/,
            include: paths.appSrc,
            loader: require.resolve('babel-loader'),
            options: {
              // @remove-on-eject-begin
              babelrc: false,
              presets: [require.resolve('babel-preset-react-app')],
              // @remove-on-eject-end
              // This is a feature of `babel-loader` for webpack (not Babel itself).
              // It enables caching results in ./node_modules/.cache/babel-loader/
              // directory for faster rebuilds.
              cacheDirectory: true,
            },
          },
          // "postcss" loader applies autoprefixer to our CSS.
          // "css" loader resolves paths in CSS and adds assets as dependencies.
          // "style" loader turns CSS into JS modules that inject <style> tags.
          // In production, we use a plugin to extract that CSS to a file, but
          // in development "style" loader enables hot editing of CSS.
          {
            test: /\.css$/,
            use: [
              require.resolve('style-loader'),
              {
                loader: require.resolve('css-loader'),
                options: {
                  importLoaders: 1,
                },
              },
              {
                loader: require.resolve('postcss-loader'),
                options: {
                  // Necessary for external CSS imports to work
                  // https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/2677
                  ident: 'postcss',
                  plugins: () => [
                    require('postcss-flexbugs-fixes'),
                    autoprefixer({
                      browsers: [
                        '>1%',
                        'last 4 versions',
                        'Firefox ESR',
                        'not ie < 9', // React doesn't support IE8 anyway
                      ],
                      flexbox: 'no-2009',
                    }),
                  ],
                },
              },
            ],
          },
          // "file" loader makes sure those assets get served by WebpackDevServer.
          // When you `import` an asset, you get its (virtual) filename.
          // In production, they would get copied to the `build` folder.
          // This loader doesn't use a "test" so it will catch all modules
          // that fall through the other loaders.
          {
            // Exclude `js` files to keep "css" loader working as it injects
            // its runtime that would otherwise processed through "file" loader.
            // Also exclude `html` and `json` extensions so they get processed
            // by webpacks internal loaders.
            exclude: [/\.(js|jsx|mjs)$/, /\.html$/, /\.json$/],
            loader: require.resolve('file-loader'),
            options: {
              name: 'static/media/[name].[hash:8].[ext]',
            },
          },
        ],
      },
      // ** STOP ** Are you adding a new loader?
      // Make sure to add the new loader(s) before the "file" loader.
    ],
  },
  plugins: [
    // Makes some environment variables available in index.html.
    // The public URL is available as %PUBLIC_URL% in index.html, e.g.:
    // <link rel="shortcut icon" href="%PUBLIC_URL%/favicon.ico">
    // In development, this will be an empty string.
    new InterpolateHtmlPlugin(env.raw),
    // Generates an `index.html` file with the <script> injected.
    new HtmlWebpackPlugin({
      inject: true,
      template: paths.appHtml,
    }),
    // Add module names to factory functions so they appear in browser profiler.
    new webpack.NamedModulesPlugin(),
    // Makes some environment variables available to the JS code, for example:
    // if (process.env.NODE_ENV === 'development') { ... }. See `./env.js`.
    new webpack.DefinePlugin(env.stringified),
    // This is necessary to emit hot updates (currently CSS only):
    new webpack.HotModuleReplacementPlugin(),
    // Watcher doesn't work well if you mistype casing in a path so we use
    // a plugin that prints an error when you attempt to do this.
    // See https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/240
    new CaseSensitivePathsPlugin(),
    // If you require a missing module and then `npm install` it, you still have
    // to restart the development server for Webpack to discover it. This plugin
    // makes the discovery automatic so you don't have to restart.
    // See https://github.com/facebookincubator/create-react-app/issues/186
    new WatchMissingNodeModulesPlugin(paths.appNodeModules),
    // Moment.js is an extremely popular library that bundles large locale files
    // by default due to how Webpack interprets its code. This is a practical
    // solution that requires the user to opt into importing specific locales.
    // https://github.com/jmblog/how-to-optimize-momentjs-with-webpack
    // You can remove this if you don't use Moment.js:
    new webpack.IgnorePlugin(/^\.\/locale$/, /moment$/),
  ],
  // Some libraries import Node modules but don't use them in the browser.
  // Tell Webpack to provide empty mocks for them so importing them works.
  node: {
    dgram: 'empty',
    fs: 'empty',
    net: 'empty',
    tls: 'empty',
    child_process: 'empty',
  },
  // Turn off performance hints during development because we don't do any
  // splitting or minification in interest of speed. These warnings become
  // cumbersome.
  performance: {
    hints: false,
  },
};

4、npm run eject命令

单向操作不可逆,npm eun eject命令暴露项目的配置,可以自由配置项目所需的依赖,不使用的版本零配置即可开发。

npm run eject后文件目录

npm run eject后package.json文件

执行npm run eject后,整个项目结构和配置和平时开发就没什么区别了。 30人点赞React

原文作者:芒果加奶,原文链接:https://www.jianshu.com/p/c6040430b18d

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